• kayakp98

Kidney Anatomy and Function

Hello, welcome back.

Kidney's are so important! They remove waste, excess fluids and toxins from blood, converts them into something less toxic and eliminates them via urine! They also regulate blood pressure by regulating blood volume via the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System - which is a hormone system that becomes "activated" whenever the body is not in homeostasis.

How does blood pressure work?


Blood pressure = cardiac output x systemic vascular resistance

Cardiac output can be further broken down into stroke volume and heart rate.

Stroke volume is

Heart rate is

System vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. The contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle cells within vessel walls is what narrows and widens the blood vessels in order to increase and decrease vascular resistance, respectively.

Contraction of muscle > Narrowing of blood vessel > increase vascular resistance

Relaxation of muscle > Widening of blood vessel > decrease vascular resistance

So if we look at this like a math equation and blood pressure is a constant (because our body wants to maintain a stable blood pressure), then if cardiac output increases, systemic vascular resistance must decrease in order to maintain the constant blood pressure.

Moving on...

Blood is carried throughout the body via blood vessel network.

Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen away from the heart to organs and

Veins carry blood poor in oxygen toward the heart, where it will be delivered to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

We have veins and arteries, which are essentially a tube-like system, and we have blood flowing through these tubes. In order to increase our blood pressure, we can either increase cardiac output (stroke volume x heart rate) or increase vascular resistance (which happens via constriction of smooth muscle cells within vessel walls).

So when you're relaxed, in parasympathetic mode, the smooth muscles relax, so your arteries and veins "relax" (its called vasodilation), blood moves more easily (decreased vascular resistance) and you feel relaaxxed.

The opposite is true when you're stressed. Stress increases heart rate, which increases cardiac output and it also causes other hormonal changes that would lead to constriction of smooth muscle cells within vessel wells. If we look at the equation, blood pressure would increase quite a bit in a stressful situation.

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Because my 16 year old sarcastic self needs an outlet and I've been told that I usually give some pretty good advice. I am also a recovering perfectionist, master organizer, empath, claircognizant, an

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